Monitoring tool for UPS. This will monitor the status of the ups, and shut the system down when it's running low.
Now lets see the manual of upsmon service.Manual upsmon:Name
upsmon - UPS monitor and shutdown controllerSynopsis
upsmon [-D] [-p] [-u user]Description
upsmon is the client process that is responsible for the most important part of UPS monitoring - shutting down the system when the
power goes out. It can call out to other helper programs for notification purposes during power events.
upsmon can monitor multiple systems using a single process. Every UPS that is defined in the upsmon.conf(5) configuration file is
assigned a power value and a type (slave or master).Options
Display the help message.
Send the command command to the existing upsmon process. Valid commands are:
fsd - shutdown all master UPSes (use with caution)
stop - stop monitoring and exit
reload - reread upsmon.conf(5) configuration file. See "reloading nuances" below if this doesn't work.
Raise the debugging level. upsmon will run in the foreground and prints information on stdout about the monitoring process.
Use this multiple times for more details.
Test for the shutdown flag. If it exists and contains the magic string from upsmon, then upsmon will exit with EXIT_SUCCESS.
Any other condition will make upsmon exit with EXIT_FAILURE.
You can test for a successful exit from upsmon -K in your shutdown scripts to know when to call upsdrvctl(8) to shut down the
Run privileged all the time. Normally upsmon will split into two processes. The majority of the code runs as an unprivileged user,
and only a tiny stub runs as root. This switch will disable that mode, and run the old "all root all the time" system.
This is not the recommended mode, and you should not use this unless you have a very good reason.
Set the user for the unprivileged monitoring process. This has no effect when using -p.
The default user is set at configure time with 'configure
--with-user=...'. Typically this is 'nobody', but other distributions will probably have a specific 'nut' user for this
task. If your notification scripts need to run as a specific user, set it here.
You can also set this in the upsmon.conf(5) file with the
RUN_AS_USER directive.Ups Definitions
In the upsmon.conf(5), you must specify at least one UPS that will be monitored. Use the MONITOR directive.
MONITOR system powervalue username
The system refers to a upsd(8) server, in the form upsname@hostname[:port]. Some examples follow:
- "su700@mybox" means a UPS called "su700" on a system called "mybox".
This is the normal form.
- "fenton@bigbox:5678" is a UPS called "fenton" on a system called
"bigbox" which runs upsd(8) on port "5678".
The powervalue refers to how many power supplies on this system are being driven this UPS. This is typically set to 1, but see the
section on power values below.
The username is a section in your upsd.users(5) file. Whatever password you set in that section must match the password set in
The type set in that section must also match the type here - master or slave. In general, a master process is one running on the
system with the UPS actually plugged into a serial port, and a slave is drawing power from the UPS but can't talk to it directly.
See the section on UPS types for more.Notify Events
upsmon senses several events as it monitors each UPS. They are called notify events as they can be used to tell the users and
admins about the change in status. See the additional NOTIFY-related sections below for information on customizing the delivery
of these messages.
The UPS is back on line.
The UPS is on battery.
The UPS battery is low (as determined by the driver).
The UPS has been commanded into the "forced shutdown" mode.
Communication with the UPS has been established.
Communication with the UPS was just lost.
The local system is being shut down.
The UPS needs to have its battery replaced.
The UPS can't be contacted for monitoring.Notify Command
In upsmon.conf(5), you can configure a program called the NOTIFYCMD that will handle events that occur.
NOTIFYCMD "path to program"
Remember to wrap the path in "quotes" if it contains any spaces.
The program you run as your NOTIFYCMD can use the environment variables NOTIFYTYPE and UPSNAME to know what has happened and
on which UPS. It also receives the notification message (see below) as the first (and only) argument, so you can deliver a
preformatted message too.
Note that the NOTIFYCMD will only be called for a given event when you set the EXEC flag by using the notify flags, below:Notify Flags
By default, all notify events (see above) generate a global message (wall) to all users, plus they are logged via the syslog.
You can change this with the NOTIFYFLAG directive in the configuration file:
NOTIFYFLAG notifytype flags
NOTIFYFLAG ONLINE SYSLOG
NOTIFYFLAG ONBATT SYSLOG+WALL
NOTIFYFLAG LOWBATT SYSLOG+WALL+EXEC
The flags that can be set on a given notify event are:
Write this message to the syslog.
Send this message to all users on the system via 'wall'.
Execute the NOTIFYCMD.
Don't do anything. If you use this, don't use any of the other flags.
You can mix these flags. "SYSLOG+WALL+EXEC" does all three for a given event.Notify Messages
upsmon comes with default messages for each of the NOTIFY events. These can be changed with the NOTIFYMSG directive.
NOTIFYMSG type "message"
NOTIFYMSG ONLINE "UPS %s is getting line power"
NOTIFYMSG ONBATT "Someone pulled the plug on %s"
The first instance of %s is replaced with the identifier of the UPS that generated the event. These messages are used when
sending walls to the users directly from upsmon, and are also passed to the NOTIFYCMD.Power Values
The "current overall power value" is the sum of all UPSes that are currently able to supply power to the system hosting upsmon.
Any UPS that is either on line or just on battery contributes to this number. If a UPS is critical (on battery and low battery) or
has been put into "forced shutdown" mode, it no longer contributes.
A "power value" on a MONITOR line in the config file is the number of power supplies that the UPS runs on the current system.
MONITOR upsname powervalue username password type
Normally, you only have one power supply, so it will be set to 1.
MONITOR myups@myhost 1 username mypassword master
On a large server with redundant power supplies, the power value for a UPS may be greater than 1. You may also have more than one of
MONITOR ups-alpha@myhost 2 username mypassword master
MONITOR ups-beta@myhost 2 username mypassword master
You can also set the power value for a UPS to 0 if it does not supply any power to that system. This is generally used when you want
to use the upsmon notification features for a UPS even though it's not actually running the system that hosts upsmon. Don't
set this to "master" unless you really want to power this UPS off when this instance of upsmon needs to shut down for its
MONITOR faraway@anotherbox 0 username mypassword slave
The "minimum power value" is the number of power supplies that must be receiving power in order to keep the computer running.
Typical PCs only have 1, so most users will leave this at the default.
If you have a server or similar system with redundant power, then this value will usually be set higher. One that requires
three power supplies to be running at all times would simply set it to 3.
When the current overall power value drops below the minimum power value, upsmon starts the shutdown sequence. This design allows
you to lose some of your power supplies in a redundant power environment without bringing down the entire system while still
working properly for smaller systems.Ups Types
upsmon and upsd(8) don't always run on the same system. When they do, any UPSes that are directly attached to the upsmon host
should be monitored in "master" mode. This makes upsmon take charge of that equipment, and it will wait for slaves to
disconnect before shutting down the local system. This allows the distant systems (monitoring over the network) to shut down cleanly
before upsdrvctl shutdown runs and turns them all off.
When upsmon runs as a slave, it is relying on the distant system to tell it about the state of the UPS. When that UPS goes critical
(on battery and low battery), it immediately invokes the local shutdown command. This needs to happen quickly. Once it disconnects
from the distant upsd(8) server, the master upsmon will start its own shutdown process. Your slaves must all shut down before the
master turns off the power or filesystem damage may result.
upsmon deals with slaves that get wedged, hang, or otherwise fail to disconnect from upsd(8) in a timely manner with the
HOSTSYNC timer. During a shutdown situation, the master upsmon will give up after this interval and it will shut down anyway. This
keeps the master from sitting there forever (which would endanger that host) if a slave should break somehow. This defaults to
If your master system is shutting down too quickly, set the FINALDELAY interval to something greater than the default 15 seconds.
Don't set this too high, or your UPS battery may run out of power before the master upsmon process shuts down that system.Timed Shutdowns
For those rare situations where the shutdown process can't be completed between the time that low battery is signalled and the
UPS actually powers off the load, use the upssched(8) helper program. You can use it along with upsmon to schedule a shutdown
based on the "on battery" event. upssched can then come back to upsmon to initiate the shutdown once it's run on battery
This can be complicated and messy, so stick to the default critical UPS handling if you can.Redundant Power Supplies
If you have more than one power supply for redundant power, you may also have more than one UPS feeding your computer. upsmon can
handle this. Be sure to set the UPS power values appropriately and the MINSUPPLIES value high enough so that it keeps running
until it really does need to shut down.
For example, the HP NetServer LH4 by default has 3 power supplies installed, with one bay empty. It has two power cords, one per
side of the box. This means that one power cord powers two power supply bays, and that you can only have two UPSes
Connect UPS "alpha" to the cord feeding two power supplies, and UPS "beta" to the cord that feeds the third and the empty
slot. Define alpha as a powervalue of 2, and beta as a powervalue of 1. Set the MINSUPPLIES to 2.
When alpha goes on battery, your current overall power value will stay at 3, as it's still supplying power. However, once it
goes critical (on battery and low battery), it will stop contributing to the current overall power value. That means the value
will be 1 (beta alone), which is less than 2. That is insufficient to run the system, and upsmon will invoke the shutdown
However, if beta goes critical, subtracting its contribution will take the current overall value from 3 to 2. This is just high
enough to satisfy the minimum, so the system will continue running as before. If beta returns later, it will be re-added
and the current value will go back to 3. This allows you to swap out UPSes, change a power configuration, or whatever, as long
as you maintain the minimum power value at all times.Mixed Operations
Besides being able to monitor multiple UPSes, upsmon can also monitor them as different roles. If you have a system with
multiple power supplies serviced by separate UPS batteries, it's possible to be a master on one and a slave on the other. This
usually happens when you run out of serial ports and need to do the monitoring through another system nearby.
This is also complicated, especially when it comes time to power down a UPS that has gone critical but doesn't supply the local
system. You can do this with some scripting magic in your notify command script, but it's beyond the scope of this manual.Forced Shutdowns
When upsmon is forced to bring down the local system, it sets the "FSD" (forced shutdown) flag on any UPSes that it is running in
master mode. This is used to synchronize slaves in the event that a master UPS that is otherwise OK needs to be brought down due
to some pressing event on the master.
You can manually invoke this mode on the master upsmon by starting another copy with '-c fsd'. This is useful when you want to
initiate a shutdown before the critical stage through some external means, such as upssched(8).Dead Upses
In the event that upsmon can't reach upsd(8), it declares that UPS "dead" after some interval controlled by DEADTIME in the
upsmon.conf(5). If this happens while that UPS was last known to be on battery, it is assumed to have gone critical and no
longer contributes to the overall power value.
upsmon will alert you to a UPS that can't be contacted for monitoring with a "NOCOMM" notifier by default every 300 seconds.
This can be changed with the NOCOMMWARNTIME setting.Reloading Nuances
upsmon usually gives up root powers for the process that does most of the work, including handling signals like SIGHUP to reload
the configuration file. This means your upsmon.conf(8) file must be readable by the non-root account that upsmon switches to.
If you want reloads to work, upsmon must run as some user that has permissions to read the configuration file. I recommend making a
new user just for this purpose, as making the file readable by "nobody" (the default user) would be a bad idea.
See the RUN_AS_USER section in upsmon.conf(8) for more on this topic.
Additionally, you can't change the SHUTDOWNCMD or POWERDOWNFLAG definitions with a reload due to the split-process model. If you
change those values, you must stop upsmon and start it back up. upsmon will warn you in the syslog if you make changes to either
of those values during a reload.Simulating Power Failures
To test a synchronized shutdown without pulling the plug on your UPS(es), you need only set the forced shutdown (FSD) flag on them.
You can do this by calling upsmon again to set the flag - i.e.:
upsmon -c fsd
After that, the master and the slaves will do their usual shutdown sequence as if the battery had gone critical. This is much
easier on your UPS equipment, and it beats crawling under a desk to find the plug.Files
upsc(8), upscmd(8), upsrw(8), upsmon(8)
upsset.cgi(8), upsstats.cgi(8), upsimage.cgi(8)
The NUT (Network UPS Tools) home page: http://www.networkupstools.org/REFERENCED BY
belkinunv(8), genericups(8), mge-ellipse(8), mge-shut(8), nutupsdrv(8), tripplitesu(8), upslog(8), upssched.conf(5)